Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India, outlining the framework and basic principles of government.

Constitution Of IndiaIndian ConstitutionFundamental RightsDirective PrinciplesFederalism

Summary

The Constitution of India was adopted on November 26, 1949 and came into effect on January 26, 1950. It is the supreme law of India, laying down the framework and basic principles of government, as well as defining the fundamental rights and duties of Indian citizens. The Constitution has a preamble, 22 parts, and 395 articles, as well as eight schedules and numerous amendments. It provides for a federal system of government with a strong central government and includes provisions for the separation of powers, fundamental rights and duties, directive principles of state policy, and the structure and powers of the government at the national, state, and local levels.

ARTICLES

PREAMBLE

PART I
THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

Article 1 : Name and territory of the Union.

Article 2 : Admission or establishment of new States.

Article 2A : Sikkim to be associated with the Union

Article 3 : Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.

Article 4 : Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.

PART II
CITIZENSHIP

Article 5 : Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.

Article 6 : Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.

Article 7 : Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.

Article 8 : Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.

Article 9 : Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens.

Article 10 : Continuance of the rights of citizenship.

Article 11 : Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

PART III
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

General

Article 12 : Definition.

Article 13 : Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

Right to Equality

Article 14 : Equality before law.

Article 15 : Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

Article 16 : Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.

Article 17 : Abolition of Untouchability.

Article 18 : Abolition of titles.

Right to Freedom

Article 19 : Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.

Article 20 : Protection in respect of conviction for offences.

Article 21 : Protection of life and personal liberty.

Article 21A : Right to education.

Article 22 : Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Right against Exploitation

Article 23 : Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.

Article 24 : Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Right to Freedom of Religion

Article 25 : Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.

Article 26 : Freedom to manage religious affairs.

Article 27 : Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.

Article 28 : Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions.

Cultural and Educational Rights

Article 29 : Protection of interests of minorities.

Article 30 : Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

Article 31 : Compulsory acquisition of property

Saving of Certain Laws

Article 31A : Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.

Article 31B : Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.

Article 31C : Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.

Article 31D : Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities

Right to Constitutional Remedies

Article 32 : Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.

Article 32A : Constitutional validity of State laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 32

Article 33 : Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc.

Article 34 : Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area.

Article 35 : Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.

PART IV
DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

Article 36 : Definition.

Article 37 : Application of the principles contained in this Part.

Article 38 : State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.

Article 39 : Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.

Article 39A : Equal justice and free legal aid.

Article 40 : Organisation of village panchayats.

Article 41 : Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.

Article 42 : Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.

Article 43 : Living wage, etc., for workers.

Article 43A : Participation of workers in management of Industries.

Article 43B : Promotion of co-operative societies.

Article 44 : Uniform civil code for the citizens.

Article 45 : Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.

Article 46 : Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.

Article 47 : Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.

Article 48 : Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.

Article 48A : Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.

Article 49 : Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.

Article 50 : Separation of judiciary from executive.

Article 51 : Promotion of international peace and security.

PART IVA
FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

Article 51A : Fundamental duties.

PART V
THE UNION | CHAPTER I
THE EXECUTIVE

The President and Vice
President

Article 52 : The President of India.

Article 53 : Executive power of the Union.

Article 54 : Election of President.

Article 55 : Manner of election of President.

Article 56 : Term of office of President.

Article 57 : Eligibility for re-election.

Article 58 : Qualifications for election as President.

Article 59 : Conditions of President's office.

Article 60 : Oath or affirmation by the President.

Article 61 : Procedure for impeachment of the President.

Article 62 : Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.

Article 63 : The Vice-President of India.

Article 64 : The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.

Article 65 : The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.

Article 66 : Election of Vice-President.

Article 67 : Term of office of Vice-President.

Article 68 : Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.

Article 69 : Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.

Article 70 : Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies.

Article 71 : Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President.

Article 72 : Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.

Article 73 : Extent of executive power of the Union.

Council of Ministers

Article 74 : Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.

Article 75 : Other provisions as to Ministers.

The Attorney
General for India

Article 76 : Attorney-General for India.

Conduct of Government Business

Article 77 : Conduct of business of the Government of India.

Article 78 : Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.

PART V
THE UNION | CHAPTER II
PARLIAMENT

General

Article 79 : Constitution of Parliament.

Article 80 : Composition of the Council of States.

Article 81 : Composition of the House of the People.

Article 82 : Readjustment after each census.

Article 83 : Duration of Houses of Parliament.

Article 84 : Qualification for membership of Parliament.

Article 85 : Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.

Article 86 : Right of President to address and send messages to Houses.

Article 87 : Special address by the President.

Article 88 : Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses.

Officers of Parliament

Article 89 : The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.

Article 90 : Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman.

Article 91 : Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.

Article 92 : The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.

Article 93 : The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People.

Article 94 : Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.

Article 95 : Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker.

Article 96 : The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.

Article 97 : Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker.

Article 98 : Secretariat of Parliament.

Conduct of Business

Article 99 : Oath or affirmation by members.

Article 100 : Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.

Disqualifications of Members

Article 101 : Vacation of seats.

Article 102 : Disqualifications for membership.

Article 103 : Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.

Article 104 : Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified.

Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members

Article 105 : Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof.

Article 106 : Salaries and allowances of members.

Legislative Procedure

Article 107 : Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.

Article 108 : Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.

Article 109 : Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.

Article 110 : Definition of "Money Bills".

Article 111 : Assent to Bills.

Procedure in Financial Matters

Article 112 : Annual financial statement.

Article 113 : Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.

Article 114 : Appropriation Bills.

Article 115 : Supplementary, additional or excess grants.

Article 116 : Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.

Article 117 : Special provisions as to financial Bills.

Procedure Generally

Article 118 : Rules of procedure.

Article 119 : Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.

Article 120 : Language to be used in Parliament.

Article 121 : Restriction on discussion in Parliament.

Article 122 : Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.

PART V
THE UNION

CHAPTER III
LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT

Article 123 : Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.

CHAPTER IV
THE UNION JUDICIARY

Article 124 : Establishment and constitution of the Supreme Court.

Article 124A : National Judicial Appointments Commission.

Article 124B : Functions of Commission.

Article 124C : Power of Parliament to make law.

Article 125 : Salaries, etc., of Judges.

Article 126 : Appointment of acting Chief Justice.

Article 127 : Appointment of ad hoc Judges.

Article 128 : Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court.

Article 129 : Supreme Court to be a court of record.

Article 130 : Seat of Supreme Court.

Article 131 : Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

Article 131A : Exclusive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to questions as to constitutional validity of Central laws

Article 132 : Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases.

Article 133 : Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to civil matters.

Article 134 : Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters.

Article 134A : Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court.

Article 135 : Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court.

Article 136 : Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.

Article 137 : Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court.

Article 138 : Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

Article 139 : Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.

Article 139A : Transfer of certain cases.

Article 140 : Ancillary powers of the Supreme Court.

Article 141 : Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.

Article 142 : Enforcement of decrees and orders of the Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc.

Article 143 : Power of the President to consult the Supreme Court.

Article 144 : Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.

Article 144A : Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of laws

Article 145 : Rules of Court, etc.

Article 146 : Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.

Article 147 : Interpretation.

CHAPTER V
COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR
GENERAL OF INDIA

Article 148 : Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

Article 149 : Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.

Article 150 : Form of accounts of the Union and of the States.

Article 151 : Audit reports.

PART VI
THE STATES

CHAPTER I
GENERAL

Article 152 : Definition.

PART VI
THE STATES | CHAPTER II
THE EXECUTIVE

The Governor

Article 153 : Governors of States.

Article 154 : Executive power of State.

Article 155 : Appointment of Governor.

Article 156 : Term of office of Governor.

Article 157 : Qualifications for appointment as Governor.

Article 158 : Conditions of Governor's office.

Article 159 : Oath or affirmation by the Governor.

Article 160 : Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies.

Article 161 : Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.

Article 162 : Extent of executive power of the State.

Council of Ministers

Article 163 : Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.

Article 164 : Other provisions as to Ministers.

The Advocate
General for the State

Article 165 : Advocate-General for the State.

Conduct of Government Business

Article 166 : Conduct of business of the Government of a State.

Article 167 : Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.

PART VI
THE STATES | CHAPTER III
THE STATE LEGISLATURE

General

Article 168 : Constitution of Legislatures in States.

Article 169 : Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.

Article 170 : Composition of the Legislative Assemblies.

Article 171 : Composition of the Legislative Councils.

Article 172 : Duration of State Legislatures.

Article 173 : Qualification for membership of the State Legislature.

Article 174 : Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution.

Article 175 : Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.

Article 176 : Special address by the Governor.

Article 177 : Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses.

Officers of the State Legislature

Article 178 : The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.

Article 179 : Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.

Article 180 : Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker.

Article 181 : The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.

Article 182 : The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council.

Article 183 : Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman.

Article 184 : Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.

Article 185 : The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.

Article 186 : Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman.

Article 187 : Secretariat of State Legislature.

Conduct of Business

Article 188 : Oath or affirmation by members.

Article 189 : Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.

Disqualifications of Members

Article 190 : Vacation of seats.

Article 191 : Disqualifications for membership.

Article 192 : Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.

Article 193 : Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified.

Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members

Article 194 : Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof.

Article 195 : Salaries and allowances of members.

Legislative Procedure

Article 196 : Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.

Article 197 : Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills.

Article 198 : Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.

Article 199 : Definition of "Money Bills".

Article 200 : Assent to Bills.

Article 201 : Bills reserved for consideration.

Procedure in Financial Matters

Article 202 : Annual financial statement.

Article 203 : Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates.

Article 204 : Appropriation Bills.

Article 205 : Supplementary, additional or excess grants.

Article 206 : Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.

Article 207 : Special provisions as to financial Bills.

Procedure Generally

Article 208 : Rules of procedure.

Article 209 : Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business.

Article 210 : Language to be used in the Legislature.

Article 211 : Restriction on discussion in the Legislature.

Article 212 : Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.

PART VI
THE STATES

CHAPTER IV
LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR

Article 213 : Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.

CHAPTER V
THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES

Article 214 : High Courts for States.

Article 215 : High Courts to be courts of record.

Article 216 : Constitution of High Courts.

Article 217 : Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.

Article 218 : Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.

Article 219 : Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.

Article 220 : Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.

Article 221 : Salaries, etc., of Judges.

Article 222 : Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.

Article 223 : Appointment of acting Chief Justice.

Article 224 : Appointment of additional and acting Judges.

Article 224A : Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.

Article 225 : Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.

Article 226 : Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.

Article 226A : Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 226

Article 227 : Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.

Article 228 : Transfer of certain cases to High Court.

Article 228A : Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of State laws

Article 229 : Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.

Article 230 : Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.

Article 231 : Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.

Article 232 : Interpretation.

CHAPTER VI
SUBORDINATE COURTS

Article 233 : Appointment of district judges.

Article 233A : Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges.

Article 234 : Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.

Article 235 : Control over subordinate courts.

Article 236 : Interpretation.

Article 237 : Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates.

PART VIII
THE UNION TERRITORIES

Article 239 : Administration of Union territories.

Article 239A : Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories.

Article 239AA : Special provisions with respect to Delhi.

Article 239AB : Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.

Article 239B : Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.

Article 240 : Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.

Article 241 : High Courts for Union territories.

Article 242 : Coorg

PART IX
THE PANCHAYATS

Article 243 : Definitions.

Article 243A : Gram Sabha.

Article 243B : Constitution of Panchayats.

Article 243C : Composition of Panchayats.

Article 243D : Reservation of seats.

Article 243E : Duration of Panchayats, etc.

Article 243F : Disqualifications for membership.

Article 243G : Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.

Article 243H : Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats.

Article 243I : Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position.

Article 243J : Audit of accounts of Panchayats.

Article 243K : Elections to the Panchayats.

Article 243L : Application to Union territories.

Article 243M : Part not to apply to certain areas.

Article 243N : Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats.

Article 243O : Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

PART IXA
THE MUNICIPALITIES

Article 243P : Definitions.

Article 243Q : Constitution of Municipalities.

Article 243R : Composition of Municipalities.

Article 243S : Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.

Article 243T : Reservation of seats.

Article 243U : Duration of Municipalities, etc.

Article 243V : Disqualifications for membership.

Article 243W : Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.

Article 243X : Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.

Article 243Y : Finance Commission.

Article 243Z : Audit of accounts of Municipalities.

Article 243ZA : Elections to the Municipalities.

Article 243ZB : Application to Union territories.

Article 243ZC : Part not to apply to certain areas.

Article 243ZD : Committee for district planning.

Article 243ZE : Committee for Metropolitan planning.

Article 243ZF : Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities.

Article 243ZG : Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

PART IXB
THE CO
OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

Article 243ZH : Definitions.

Article 243ZI : Incorporation of co-operative societies.

Article 243ZJ : Number and term of members of board and its office bearers.

Article 243ZK : Election of members of board.

Article 243ZL : Supersession and suspension of board and interim management.

Article 243ZM : Audit of accounts of co-operative societies.

Article 243ZN : Convening of general body meetings.

Article 243ZO : Right of a member to get information.

Article 243ZP : Returns.

Article 243ZQ : Offences and penalties.

Article 243ZR : Application to multi-State co-operative societies.

Article 243ZS : Application to Union territories.

Article 243ZT : Continuance of existing laws.

PART X
THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS

Article 244 : Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas.

Article 244A : Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor.

PART XI
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES | CHAPTER I
LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS

Distribution of Legislative Powers

Article 245 : Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.

Article 246 : Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.

Article 246A : Special provision with respect to goods and services tax.

Article 247 : Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts.

Article 248 : Residuary powers of legislation.

Article 249 : Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest.

Article 250 : Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.

Article 251 : Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the Legislatures of States.

Article 252 : Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State.

Article 253 : Legislation for giving effect to international agreements.

Article 254 : Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States.

Article 255 : Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only.

PART XI
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES

CHAPTER II
ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS General

Article 256 : Obligation of States and the Union.

Article 257 : Control of the Union over States in certain cases.

Article 257A : Assistance to States by deployment of armed forces or other forces of the Union

Article 258 : Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases.

Article 258A : Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union.

Article 259 : Armed Forces in States in Part B of the First Schedule

Article 260 : Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India.

Article 261 : Public acts, records and judicial proceedings.

PART XI
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES | CHAPTER II
ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS General

Disputes relating to Waters

Article 262 : Co-ordination between States Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys.

Article 263 : Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council.

PART XII
FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS | CHAPTER I
FINANCE

General

Article 264 : Interpretation.

Article 265 : Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law.

Article 266 : Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States.

Article 267 : Contingency Fund.

Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States

Article 268 : Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the States.

Article 268A : Service tax levied by Union and collected by the Union and the States

Article 269 : Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States.

Article 270 : Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States.

Article 271 : Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union.

Article 272 : Taxes which are levied and collected by the Union and may be distributed between the Union and the States

Article 273 : Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products.

Article 274 : Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in which States are interested.

Article 275 : Grants from the Union to certain States.

Article 276 : Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.

Article 277 : Savings.

Article 278 : Agreement with States in Part B of the First Schedule with regard to certain financial matters

Article 279 : Calculation of "net proceeds", etc.

Article 279A : Goods and Services Tax Council.

Article 280 : Finance Commission.

Article 281 : Recommendations of the Finance Commission.

Miscellaneous Financial Provisions

Article 282 : Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues.

Article 283 : Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public accounts.

Article 284 : Custody of suitors ' deposits and other moneys received by public servants and courts.

Article 285 : Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation.

Article 286 : Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods.

Article 287 : Exemption from taxes on electricity.

Article 288 : Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases.

Article 289 : Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation.

Article 290 : Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions.

Article 290A : Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds.

Article 291 : Privy purse sums of Rulers

PART XII
FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS

CHAPTER II
BORROWING

Article 292 : Borrowing by the Government of India.

Article 293 : Borrowing by States.

CHAPTER III
PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES, OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS

Article 294 : Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases.

Article 295 : Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other cases.

Article 296 : Property accruing by escheat or lapse or as bona vacantia.

Article 297 : Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union.

Article 298 : Power to carry on trade, etc.

Article 299 : Contracts.

Article 300 : Suits and proceedings.

CHAPTER IV
RIGHT TO PROPERTY

Article 300A : Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.

PART XIII
TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA

Article 301 : Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse.

Article 302 : Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse.

Article 303 : Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce.

Article 304 : Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States.

Article 305 : Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies.

Article 306 : Power of certain States in Part B of the First Schedule to impose restrictions on trade and commerce

Article 307 : Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304.

PART XIV
SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES

CHAPTER I
SERVICES

Article 308 : Interpretation.

Article 309 : Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State.

Article 310 : Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State.

Article 311 : Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State.

Article 312 : All-India services.

Article 312A : Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services.

Article 313 : Transitional provisions.

Article 314 : Provision for protection of existing officers of certain services

CHAPTER II
PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS

Article 315 : Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.

Article 316 : Appointment and term of office of members.

Article 317 : Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission.

Article 318 : Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission.

Article 319 : Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members.

Article 320 : Functions of Public Service Commissions.

Article 321 : Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.

Article 322 : Expenses of Public Service Commissions.

Article 323 : Reports of Public Service Commissions.

PART XIVA
TRIBUNALS

Article 323A : Administrative tribunals.

Article 323B : Tribunals for other matters.

PART XV
ELECTIONS

Article 324 : Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission.

Article 325 : No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex.

Article 326 : Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage.

Article 327 : Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures.

Article 328 : Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature.

Article 329 : Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

Article 329A : Special provision as to elections to Parliament in the case of Prime Minister and Speaker

PART XVI
SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES

Article 330 : Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People.

Article 331 : Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People.

Article 332 : Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States.

Article 333 : Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States.

Article 334 : Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after certain period.

Article 335 : Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.

Article 336 : Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services.

Article 337 : Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian Community.

Article 338 : National Commission for Scheduled Castes.

Article 338A : National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.

Article 338B : National Commission for Backward Classes.

Article 339 : Control of the Union over the administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes.

Article 340 : Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.

Article 341 : Scheduled Castes.

Article 342 : Scheduled Tribes.

Article 342A : Socially and educationally backward classes.

PART XVII
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

CHAPTER I
LANGUAGE OF THE UNION

Article 343 : Official language of the Union.

Article 344 : Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language.

CHAPTER II
REGIONAL LANGUAGES

Article 345 : Official language or languages of a State.

Article 346 : Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union.

Article 347 : Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State.

CHAPTER III
LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC.

Article 348 : Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc.

Article 349 : Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language.

CHAPTER IV
SPECIAL DIRECTIVES

Article 350 : Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances.

Article 350A : Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.

Article 350B : Special Officer for linguistic minorities.

Article 351 : Directive for development of the Hindi language.

PART XVIII
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS

Article 352 : Proclamation of Emergency.

Article 353 : Effect of Proclamation of Emergency.

Article 354 : Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.

Article 355 : Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance.

Article 356 : Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States.

Article 357 : Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356.

Article 358 : Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies.

Article 359 : Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies.

Article 359A : Application of this Part to the State of Punjab

Article 360 : Provisions as to financial emergency.

PART XIX
MISCELLANEOUS

Article 361 : Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs.

Article 361A : Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures.

Article 361B : Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post.

Article 362 : Rights and privileges of Rulers of Indian States

Article 363 : Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements, etc.

Article 363A : Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be abolished.

Article 364 : Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes.

Article 365 : Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the Union.

Article 366 : Definitions.

Article 367 : Interpretation.

PART XX
AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

Article 368 : Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor.

PART XXI
TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS

Article 369 : Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List.

Article 370 : Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

Article 371 : Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Article 371A : Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland.

Article 371B : Special provision with respect to the State of Assam.

Article 371C : Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur.

Article 371D : Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh or the State of Telangana.

Article 371E : Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh.

Article 371F : Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim.

Article 371G : Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.

Article 371H : Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.

Article 371I : Special provision with respect to the State of Goa.

Article 371J : Special provisions with respect to the State of Karnataka.

Article 372 : Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation.

Article 372A : Power of the President to adapt laws.

Article 373 : Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases.

Article 374 : Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council.

Article 375 : Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution.

Article 376 : Provisions as to Judges of High Courts.

Article 377 : Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

Article 378 : Provisions as to Public Service Commissions.

Article 378A : Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly.

Article 379 : Provisions as to provisional Parliament and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker thereof

Article 380 : Provision as to President

Article 381 : Council of Ministers of the President

Article 382 : Provisions as to provisional Legislatures for States in Part A of the First Schedule

Article 383 : Provision as to Governors of Provinces

Article 384 : Council of Ministers of the Governors

Article 385 : Provision as to provisional Legislatures in States in Part B of the First Schedule

Article 386 : Council of Ministers for States in Part B of the First Schedule

Article 387 : Special provision as to determination of population for the purposes of certain elections

Article 388 : Provisions as to the filling of casual vacancies in the provisional Parliament and provisional Legislatures of the States

Article 390 : Money received or raised or expenditure incurred between the commencement of the Constitution and the 31st day of March, 1950

Article 391 : Power of the President to amend the First and Fourth Schedules in certain contingencies

Article 392 : Power of the President to remove difficulties.

PART XXII
SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS

Article 393 : Short title.

Article 394 : Commencement.

Article 394A : Authoritative text in the Hindi language.

Article 395 : Repeals.

SCHEDULES

FIRST SCHEDULE

FIRST SCHEDULE

I : The States.

II : The Union territories.

SCHEDULES

SECOND SCHEDULE

SECOND SCHEDULE

PART A : Provisions as to the President and the Governors of States.

PART C : Provisions as to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State.

PART D : Provisions as to the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts.

PART E : Provisions as to the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

SCHEDULES

THIRD SCHEDULE : Forms of Oaths or Affirmations.

FOURTH SCHEDULE : Allocation of seats in the Council of States.

FIFTH SCHEDULE
Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes

PART A : General.

PART B : Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.

PART C : Scheduled Areas.

PART D : Amendment of the Schedule.

SCHEDULES

SIXTH SCHEDULE : Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

SEVENTH SCHEDULE

SEVENTH SCHEDULE

List I : Union List.

List II : State List.

List III : Concurrent List.

SCHEDULES

EIGHTH SCHEDULE : Languages.

NINTH SCHEDULE : Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.

TENTH SCHEDULE : Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection.

ELEVENTH SCHEDULE : Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.

TWELFTH SCHEDULE : Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.

APPENDICES

APPENDIX I : The Constitution (One Hundredth Amendment) Act, 2015.

APPENDIX II : The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019.

APPENDIX III : Declaration under article 370 (3) of the Constitution.

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