The Factories Act, 1948

The Factories Act, 1948 - An act to regulate the working conditions in factories

Factories ActWorking ConditionsWorker SafetyHealth And WelfareRegistration And LicensingWorking HoursEmployment Of Young PersonsPenalties

Summary

The Factories Act, 1948 is an act passed by the Indian Parliament to regulate the working conditions in factories. The act is applicable to all factories including those involved in manufacturing, processing, and packaging. The Act aims to ensure the safety, health, and welfare of workers employed in factories. The Act defines a factory as any premises that employ 10 or more workers and use power or involve hazardous processes. The act lays down provisions related to registration and licensing of factories, safety measures, health and welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, and penalties for non-compliance.

CHAPTER I
PRELIMINARY

Section 1 : Short title, extent and commencement

Section 2 : Interpretation

Section 3 : References to time of day

Section 4 : Power to declare different departments to be separate factories or two or more factories to be a single factory

Section 5 : Power to exempt during public emergency

Section 6 : Approval, licensing and registration of factories

Section 7 : Notice by occupier

CHAPER II
THE INSPECTING STAFF

Section 7A : General duties of the occupier

Section 7B : General duties of manufacturers, etc, as regards articles and substances for use in factories

Section 8 : Inspectors

Section 9 : Powers of Inspectors

Section 10 : Certifying surgeons

CHAPTER III
HEALTH

Section 11 : Cleanliness

Section 12 : Disposal of wastes and effluents

Section 13 : Ventilation and temperature

Section 14 : Dust and fume

Section 15 : Artificial humidification

Section 16 : Overcrowding

Section 17 : Lighting

Section 18 : Drinking water

Section 19 : Latrines and urinals

Section 20 : Spittoons

CHAPTER IV
SAFETY

Section 21 : Fencing of machinery

Section 22 : Work on or near machinery in motion

Section 23 : Employment of young persons on dangerous machines

Section 24 : Striking gear and devices for cutting off power

Section 25 : Self-acting machines

Section 26 : Casing of new machinery

Section 27 : Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton-openers

Section 28 : Hoists and lifts

Section 29 : Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles

Section 30 : Revolving machinery

Section 31 : Pressure plant

Section 32 : Floors, stairs and means of access

Section 33 : Pits, sumps openings in floors, etc

Section 34 : Excessive weights

Section 35 : Protection of eyes

Section 36 : Precautions against dangerous fumes, gases, etc

Section 36A : Precautions regarding the use of portable electric light

Section 37 : Explosive or inflammable dust, gas, etc

Section 38 : Precautions in case of fire

Section 39 : Power to require specifications of defective parts or tests of stability

Section 40 : Safety of buildings and machinery

Section 40A : Maintenance of buildings

Section 40B : Safety officers

Section 41 : Power to make rules to supplement this Chapter

CHAPTER IVA
PROVISIONS RELATING TO HAZARDOUS PROCESSES

Section 41A : Constitution of Site Appraisal Committee

Section 41B : Compulsory disclosure of information by the occupier

Section 41C : Specific responsibility of the occupier in relation to hazardous processes

Section 41D : Power of Central Government to appoint Inquiry Committee

Section 41E : Emergency standards

Section 41F : Permissible limits of exposure of chemical and toxic substances

Section 41G : Workers? participation in safety management

Section 41H : Right of workers to warn about imminent danger

CHAPTER V
WELFARE

Section 42 : Washing facilities

Section 43 : Facilities for storing and drying clothing

Section 44 : Facilities for sitting

Section 45 : First-aid appliances

Section 46 : Canteens

Section 47 : Shelters, rest rooms and lunch rooms

Section 48 : Creches

Section 49 : Welfare officers

Section 50 : Power to make rules to supplement this Chapter

CHAPTER VI
WORKING HOURS OF ADULTS

Section 51 : Weekly hours

Section 52 : Weekly holidays

Section 53 : Compensatory holidays

Section 54 : Daily hours

Section 55 : Intervals for rest

Section 56 : Spread over

Section 57 : Night shifts

Section 58 : Prohibition of overlapping shifts

Section 59 : Extra wages for overtime

Section 60 : Restriction on double employment

Section 61 : Notice of periods of work for adults

Section 62 : Register of adult workers

Section 63 : Hours of work to correspond with notice under section 61 and register under section 62

Section 64 : Power to make exempting rules

Section 65 : Power to make exempting orders

Section 66 : Further restrictions on employment of women

CHAPTER VII
EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS

Section 67 : Prohibition of employment of young children

Section 68 : Non-adult workers to carry tokens

Section 69 : Certificates of fitness

Section 70 : Effect of certificate of fitness granted to adolescent

Section 71 : Working hours for children

Section 72 : Notice of periods of work for children

Section 73 : Register of child workers

Section 74 : Hours of work to correspond with notice under section 72 and register under section 73

Section 75 : Power to require medical examination

Section 76 : Power to make rules

Section 77 : Certain other provisions of law not barred

CHAPTER VIII
ANNUAL LEAVE WITH WAGES

Section 78 : Application of Chapter

Section 79 : Annual leave with wages

Section 80 : Wages during leave period

Section 81 : Payment in advance in certain cases

Section 82 : Mode of recovery of unpaid wages

Section 83 : Power to make rules

Section 84 : Power to exempt factories

CHAPTER IX
SPECIAL PROVISIONS

Section 85 : Power to apply the Act to certain premises

Section 86 : Power to exempt public institutions

Section 87 : Dangerous operations

Section 87A : Power to prohibit employment on account of serious hazard

Section 88 : Notice of certain accidents

Section 88A : Notice of certain dangerous occurrences

Section 89 : Notice of certain diseases

Section 90 : Power to direct enquiry into cases of accident or disease

Section 91 : Power to take samples

Section 91A : Safety and occupational health surveys

CHAPTER X
PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE

Section 92 : General penalty for offences

Section 93 : Liability of owner of premises in certain circumstances

Section 94 : Enhanced penalty after previous conviction

Section 95 : Penalty for obstructing Inspector

Section 96 : Penalty for wrongfully disclosing results of analysis under section 91

Section 96A : Penalty for contravention of the provisions of sections 41B, 41C and 41H

Section 97 : Offences by workers

Section 98 : Penalty for using false certificate of fitness

Section 99 : Penalty for permitting double employment of child

Section 100 : Repealed

Section 101 : Exemption of occupier or manager from liability in certain cases

Section 102 : Power of Court to make orders

Section 103 : Presumption as to employment

Section 104 : Onus as to age

Section 104A : Onus of proving limits of what is practicable, etc

Section 105 : Cognizance of offences

Section 106 : Limitation of prosecutions

Section 106A : Jurisdiction of a court for entertaining proceedings, etc, for offence

CHAPTER XI
SUPPLEMENTAL

Section 107 : Appeals

Section 108 : Display of notices

Section 109 : Service of notices

Section 110 : Returns

Section 111 : Obligations of workers

Section 111A : Right of workers, etc

Section 112 : General power to make rules

Section 113 : Powers of Centre to give directions

Section 114 : No charge for facilities and conveniences

Section 115 : Publication of rules

Section 116 : Application of Act to Government factories

Section 117 : Protection to persons acting under this Act

Section 118 : Restrictions on disclosure of information

Section 118A : Restriction on disclosure of information

Section 119 : Act to have effect notwithstanding anything contained in Act 37 of 1970

Section 120 : Repeal and savings

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